Foundations Of Nuclear And Particle Physics

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The first group of chapters introduces the symmetries of the Standard Model. The structure of the proton, neutron and nuclei in terms of fundamental quarks and gluons is then presented. A lot of space is devoted to the processes used experimentally to unravel the structure of hadrons and to probe quantum chromodynamics, with particular focus on lepton scattering. Following the treatment of two-nucleon systems and few-body nuclei, which have mass numbers below five, the authors discuss the properties of many-body nuclei, and also extend the treatment of lepton scattering to include the weak interactions of leptons with nucleons and nuclei. The last group of chapters is dedicated to relativistic heavy-ion physics and nuclear and particle astrophysics. A brief perspective on physics beyond the Standard Model is also provided.

PHY Overview: The Division of Physics covers research in the following major subfields: atomic, molecular and optical physics; elementary particle physics; nuclear physics; particle astrophysics; nuclear astrophysics; gravitational physics; plasma physics; physics of living systems; computational physics, and integrative activities.

PHY Science: Physics research probes the properties of matter at its most fundamental level, the interactions between particles, and the organization of constituents and symmetry principles that lead to the rich structure and phenomena that we observe in the world around us. Physics seeks a deep understanding of processes that led to the formation of the cosmos, to the structure of matter at the very shortest distance scales where quantum effects dominate, and to the structure of atomic and molecular systems that shape and control the everyday world of chemistry and biological systems. Because of the breadth and scope of physics, it forms part of the core educational curriculum in most sciences and in engineering.

Physics also supports the development of new tools and techniques needed to expand and refine our understanding of physical systems - from particle accelerators to probe physics at the energy and short-distance frontier, to femtosecond lasers to probe and control atomic and molecular systems, to LIGO, a new window on cosmological events ranging from the birth of the universe to the death throws of stars. The extraordinary sensitivity required for some of the instrumentation demands new technology development. For example, LIGO requires a displacement sensitivity of one thousandth of the diameter of the proton to observe gravitational waves from explosive cosmological processes! Such development is clearly a very high-risk endeavor. The payoff for such investments can also be very high, both scientifically and to the economic and technological future of the Nation. For example, the development and application of femtosecond lasers now permits radically improved laser surgery and micro electronics fabrication, and points the way towards full quantum control of physical and chemical processes. PHY encourages research that pushes the envelope of technology as well as the reach of science and sees this also as an investment in developing the scientific leaders of the future.

PHY Infrastructure: PHY-supported user facilities serve thousands of U.S. researchers. These facilities include the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), producing radioactive ion beams for nuclear physics, an electron-positron collider facility for elementary particle physics, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a joint NSF-DOE-CERN project at the high energy frontier, and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino-detector facility at the South Pole. PHY support through the Physics Frontiers Centers program covers nine multidisciplinary centers and institutes serving a very broad community. Education is central to all PHY activities and all awards. The Research Experience for Undergraduates Site program is an important element in the support of education. PHY now supports more than 53 such sites around the country, introducing about 500 undergraduates annually to important forefront research activities in physics.

All major present applications of nuclear physics are incorporated at a level which is both understandable by a majority of physicists and scientists of many other fields, and usefull as a first introduction for students who intend to pursue in the domain.

The authors are well-regarded scientists who work at the interface of nuclear and particle physics and astrophysics... The text succeeds quite well in its aims.... [T]he authors have found the right balance between presenting nuclear physics as a domain of fundamental research and exploring its applications in neutrino physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

Funding for nuclear physics provides leading-edge instrumentation, world-class facilities, and training and support for the people involved in these pursuits. The result is a vast array of information that is helping us understand the universe at ever-deeper levels.

Forefront nuclear physics research provides solid foundations for other fields: the accumulation of new results and the intellectual training of new generations of scientists foster important advances in medicine, chemistry and other sciences.

8.323 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I ()Prereq: 8.321Units: 4-0-8Lecture: MW EVE (4.30-6 PM) (4-163) Recitation: F4 (4-163)A one-term self-contained subject in quantum field theory. Concepts and basic techniques are developed through applications in elementary particle physics, and condensed matter physics. Topics: classical field theory, symmetries, and Noether's theorem. Quantization of scalar fields, spin fields, and Gauge bosons. Feynman graphs, analytic properties of amplitudes and unitarity of the S-matrix. Calculations in quantum electrodynamics (QED). Introduction to renormalization.H. LiuTextbooks (Spring 2023)8.324 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory II ()Prereq: 8.322 and 8.323Units: 4-0-8The second term of the quantum field theory sequence. Develops in depth some of the topics discussed in 8.323 and introduces some advanced material. Topics: perturbation theory and Feynman diagrams, scattering theory, Quantum Electrodynamics, one loop renormalization, quantization of non-abelian gauge theories, the Standard Model of particle physics, other topics.W. Taylor8.325 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory III ()Prereq: 8.324Units: 4-0-8Lecture: TR9-10.30 (4-265) Recitation: F10 (26-322)The third and last term of the quantum field theory sequence. Its aim is the proper theoretical discussion of the physics of the standard model. Topics: quantum chromodynamics; Higgs phenomenon and a description of the standard model; deep-inelastic scattering and structure functions; basics of lattice gauge theory; operator products and effective theories; detailed structure of the standard model; spontaneously broken gauge theory and its quantization; instantons and theta-vacua; topological defects; introduction to supersymmetry.W. TaylorTextbooks (Spring 2023)

8.421 Atomic and Optical Physics I ()Prereq: 8.05Units: 3-0-9The first of a two-term subject sequence that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical phsyics. The interaction of radiation with atoms: resonance; absorption, stimulated and spontaneous emission; methods of resonance, dressed atom formalism, masers and lasers, cavity quantum electrodynamics; structure of simple atoms, behavior in very strong fields; fundamental tests: time reversal, parity violations, Bell's inequalities; and experimental methods.Staff8.422 Atomic and Optical Physics II ()Prereq: 8.05Units: 3-0-9Lecture: MW1-2.30 (56-154)The second of a two-term subject sequence that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical physics. Non-classical states of light- squeezed states; multi-photon processes, Raman scattering; coherence- level crossings, quantum beats, double resonance, superradiance; trapping and cooling- light forces, laser cooling, atom optics, spectroscopy of trapped atoms and ions; atomic interactions- classical collisions, quantum scattering theory, ultracold collisions; and experimental methods.M. ZwierleinTextbooks (Spring 2023)

8.613[J] Introduction to Plasma Physics I ()(Same subject as 22.611[J])Prereq: (6.2300 or 8.07) and (18.04 or Coreq: 18.075)Units: 3-0-9Introduces plasma phenomena relevant to energy generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion and to astrophysics. Elementary plasma concepts, plasma characterization. Motion of charged particles in magnetic fields. Coulomb collisions, relaxation times, transport processes. Two-fluid hydrodynamic and MHD descriptions. Plasma confinement by magnetic fields, simple equilibrium and stability analysis. Wave propagation in a magnetic field; application to RF plasma heating. Introduction to kinetic theory; Vlasov, Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations; relation of fluid and kinetic descriptions. Electron and ion acoustic plasma waves, Landau damping.I. Hutchinson8.614[J] Introduction to Plasma Physics II ()(Same subject as 22.612[J])Prereq: 22.611Units: 3-0-9Follow-up to 22.611 provides in-depth coverage of several fundamental topics in plasma physics, selected for their wide relevance and applicability, from fusion to space- and astro-physics. Covers both kinetic and fluid instabilities: two-stream, Weibel, magnetorotational, parametric, ion-temperature-gradient, and pressure-anisotropy-driven instabilities (mirror, firehose). Also covers advanced fluid models, and drift-kinetic and gyrokinetic equations. Special attention to dynamo theory, magnetic reconnection, MHD turbulence, kinetic turbulence, and shocks.Staff 59ce067264

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